The Compact, from which the Compact of Humanity in Assembly takes its name, is the founding charter of that polity. There have been multiple compacts as, over time, it has required revision.
Until 430 IE, the Compact resembled the charter of Earth‘s United Nations, the governing body of that planet. As such, it created a Compact Assembly made up of two delegates from each member world (called core worlds.) For the original signing constituent authorities, one delegate served on the security council, fulfilling their world’s permanent membership to the Council. Later worlds joined the council on a rotating basis.
From the original compact signed after the Earth-Mars War, the document began with a fundamental declaration of human rights, based on similar sections in the constitutions of the United States and European Union, as well as the charter of the United Nations. The most controversial is Article I, Section 11, which banned capital punishment except in the cases of military abuse or treason. Many argued the exceptions made the ban meaningless.
It established a Compact-wide court system with a Supreme Court of Compact headquartered at the seat of government. The judges on the highest court, and those at the appellate and district level were called law lords.
The Compact Assembly, led by the secretary-general, performed legislative duties. A subset of delegates with more tenure, served on the Security Council. The original signatories of the Compact served as permanent members while the remainder rotated in and out of the body. The Council served as an upper house.
The secretary-general led the Assembly and, whether their homeworld had a seat on Council or not, was a member of the Security Council. Until 430, the secretary-general was the de facto head of state and actual head of government. They ran the cabinet, half appointed by the secretary-general, half by the Assembly as ministers (in keeping with parliamentary tradition.) The original compact was unique for its time in explicitly banning active duty military from serving in the Assembly or cabinet.
After 430, the secretary-general functioned more as a prime minister and first in line for a new presidency. Many of the office’s executive functions transferred to the president, who was elected directly and served for a fixed term, initially five years. The president also became commander-in-chief of the military and took over appointments of the entire cabinet.
The compact also established the military with three branches (later four) run by specifically named chiefs of staff. The joint chiefs selected a chair from one of their number, who then reported to the defence commissioner, thus mandating civilian control of the military.
Constituent authorities, the individual members of the Compact, had limits placed on their size. While a member could have colony worlds, only the core world could have representation in the Assembly. Also, no constituent authority could extend beyond its home star system, making the Jovian Federation possible, but barring Tian from claiming all four of Helios‘s Class-E worlds and the rest of its gas giants. A single planet could have no more than two constituent authorities, the smallest size being a single continent.
Secession was illegal as the compact became an association “in perpetuity.” However, if the Compact came up for revision, a world and its colonies could secede simply by not signing and sending formal notice within five years of intent to secede.
First Compact – The first compact was not actually a charter but a non-aggression pact between Earth, Mars, and the other Sol System moons and planetoids. Other worlds signed it, forming a loose confederacy. This built-in autonomy convinced Republica Etrusca to sign.
Second Compact – The second compact established the framework for an overall government for humanity while maintaining each world’s autonomy. All signatories of the first compact would have permanent membership.
Third Compact – Established penalties for “colony poaching” and establishing mechanisms for handling membership of core worlds that failed. This came about after Walton failed, necessitating the transfer its membership to its colony, Belsham.